In its first research project, the IParl examines the candidate line-up for the 2017 federal elections in the Bundestag parties CDU, CSU, SPD, DIE LINKE and BÜNDNIS 90/DIE GRÜNEN, FDP and AfD.

With the help of quantitative and qualitative methods of empirical political research, the project aims to find out how the nomination procedures are designed, who is running, who decides on the chances of success of any given candidacy, which criteria affect nominations and whether and how recruitment differs between and within the parties.

So far, the following publications from the IParl project have been published:

2020: Kandidatenaufstellung zur Bundestagswahl 2017

Kandidatenaufstellung zur Bundestagswahl 2017. Untersuchungen zu personellen und partizipatorischen Grundlagen demokratischer Ordnung, by Suzanne S. Schüttemeyer und Anastasia Pyschny

In their studies on the personal and participatory basis of democratic order, Suzanne S. Schüttemeyer and Anastasia Pyschny deal with both output and input aspects of candidate selection.

The article is published in: ZParl, Vol. 51 (2020), Issue 1, pp. 189-211.

2020: Die formale Dimension der Kandidatenaufstellung

Die formale Dimension der Kandidatenaufstellung: Satzungen im Parteien- und Zeitvergleich, von Daniel Hellmann und Benjamin Höhne

In their analysis, Daniel Hellmann and Benjamin Höhne take a look at the formal dimensions of candidate selection. The party statutes reveal similarities and differences, for example concerning the electoral procedures or assembly type.

The article is published in: ZParl, Vol. 51 (2020), Issue 1, pp. 3-25.

2020: In den „geheimen Gärten“ der Vorauswahl

In den „geheimen Gärten“ der Vorauswahl. Variationen der Listenaufstellung von CDU und SPD zum 19. Deutschen Bundestag, by Danny Schindler

Danny Schindler explores the informal procedures that precede the formal list nomination conferences within the CDU and the SPD. Among other things, he investigates the executive boards’ selection power.

The article is published in: ZParl, Vol. 51 (2020), Issue 1, pp. 26-48.

2020: Der mühselige Weg zum Mandat – aber welcher?

Der mühselige Weg zum Mandat – aber welcher? Empirische Untersuchungen zu Inhalt und Bedeutung der Ochsentour, by Daniel Hellmann

The term "Ochsentour" is closely connected to parliamentary recruitment. Daniel Hellmann reflects over this often negatively connotated term and reveals, what it actually means.

The article is published in: ZParl, Vol. 51 (2020), Issue 1, pp. 49-67.

2020: Wer ist der ideale Kandidat?

Wer ist der ideale Kandidat? Auswahlkriterien bei der Kandidatenaufstellung zum Deutschen Bundestag, by Malte Cordes und Daniel Hellmann

Malte Cordes and Daniel Hellmann search for the "ideal candidate" from the eligible to vote party members perspective. Thereby differences between the parties at the respective selection level become apparent.

The article is published in: ZParl, Vol. 51 (2020), Issue 1, pp. 68-83.

2020: „Wir gucken zuerst auf uns“ – nur wie lange noch?

2020: „Wir gucken zuerst auf uns“ – nur wie lange noch? Parteienwettbewerb bei der Kandidatenaufstellung zur Bundestagswahl 2017, by Oliver Kannenberg

Oliver Kannenberg uses the example of the AfD to investigate a possible influence of party competition on the candidate line-up. Using interview statements by the party members who selected the candidates, a (surprisingly) clear picture emerges.

The article is published in: ZParl, Vol. 51 (2020), Issue 1, pp. 84-104.

2020: Mehr Frauen im Bundestag?

2020: Mehr Frauen im Bundestag? Deskriptive Repräsentation und die innerparteiliche Herausbildung des Gender Gaps, by Benjamin Höhne

The parliamentary presence of women and gender quotas is on everyone's lips. Benjamin Höhne examines the alleged discrimination on three stages of recruitment and discusses the sense of parity laws.

The article is published in: ZParl, Vol. 51 (2020), Issue 1, pp. 105-125.

2020: No Need for Wider Selectorates?

No Need for Wider Selectorates? Party Members' Preferences for Reforming the Nomination of District and List Candidates for the German Bundestag, by Danny Schindler and Benjamin Höhne

Danny Schindler and Benjamin Höhne explore the preferences of party members actively involved in candidate nominations for various selection modes. The data show that there is very limited reform support for open primaries.

The article is published in: PVS Special Issue, 2020, pp. 283-308.

2019: Die Wiederauferstehung der FDP

Die Wiederauferstehung der FDP, by Benjamin Höhne und Uwe Jun, in: Karl-Rudolf Korte und Jan Schoofs (eds.): Die Bundestagswahl 2017. Analysen aus der Wahl-, Parteien, Kommunikations- und Regierungsforschung, Wiesbaden 2019, pp. 225-244.

Benjamin Höhne and Uwe Jun discuss a novelty in the history of the German Bundestag - the departure and re-entry of the FDP. In doing so, they shed light on the programmatic, organisational and personnel repositioning of the party in recent years.

You can find the table of content here.

2019: Der Landtag: Grundlagen, Binnenorganisation und Abgeordnetenrekrutierung

Der Landtag: Grundlagen, Binnenorganisation und Abgeordnetenrekrutierung, by Benjamin Höhne in Roger Stöcker and Maik Reichel (eds.): Sachsen-Anhalt - eine politische Landeskunde, Halle/Saale 2019, pp. 141-155.

In this article, Benjamin Höhne examines the functional principles of state parliamentarism and the organization of the state parliament in Saxony-Anhalt. In addition, he discusses the special policy constellation of the so-called Kenyan government (consisting of CDU, SPD and the Greens whose political colours in combination resemble the Kenyan flag), socio-structural characteristics of state parliamentarians and the future recruitment problems caused by shrinking party membership numbers.

You can find the table of content here.

2019: Parteien in Sachsen-Anhalt

Parteien in Sachsen-Anhalt: programmatische Schwerpunkte, Mitgliederentwicklung, organisatorischer Aufbau und interne Willensbildung, by Benjamin Höhne and Anastasia Pyschny in: Roger Stöcker und Maik Reichel (eds.): Sachsen-Anhalt - eine politische Landeskunde, Halle/Saale 2019, pp. 169-187.

In their contribution, Benjamin Höhne and Anastasia Pyschny provide an insight into the programmatic work and organizational structure of the most important parties in Saxony-Anhalt. In light of declining membership numbers and increasing party disenchantment, the parties in Saxony-Anhalt face the major problem of personnel regeneration. The aim will be to establish new concepts of party work that can also be adapted by other East and West German party associations.

You can find the table of content here.

2019: Politik ist (k)ein Männergeschäft. böll.brief

Politik ist (k)ein Männergeschäft? Eine genderfokussierte Analyse der parteilichen Kandidierendenauswahl zu Bundestagswahlen, by Benjamin Höhne

100 years after the introduction of the right to vote for women in Germany, the debate about equal participation in politics has gained momentum: Women are too rarely represented in political parties, parliaments and governments. Why this is the case is analyzed in this böll.brief based on the candidate nominations of all seven Bundestag parties. For this purpose, the recruitment stages are inversely reconstructed, i.e. from the members of parliament to the candidates to the party members with their commitment within the party and their selection preferences. In addition, concrete approaches to closing the gender gap are recommended.

You can read the study here: böll.brief

2018: Engagement beugt Politikverdruss (nicht immer) vor

Engagement beugt Politikverdruss (nicht immer) vor: Demokratievertrauen und Parlamentszufriedenheit von aktiven Parteimitgliedern, by Benjamin Höhne

In attitude and participation research it is argued that political participation can counteract political disaffection. However, the relationships between the action and attitude level are complicated, in particular, due to inconsistent causal relationships and their directions of action as well as multiple interactions. In this article, the interrelations of political participation on the one hand and political support on the attitude dimension on the other are multivariatly analyzed based on a survey of active members of all seven Bundestag parties in the run-up to the 2017 federal election. As one result, on the left and right of the political spectrum conventional participation in a party is accompanied by system-critical attitudes, and thus they find a system-appropriate outlet for their point of view.

The article is published in: ZParl, Vol. 49 (2018), Issue 4, pp. 919 – 932.

2017: Wie stellen Parteien ihre Parlamentsbewerber auf?

Wie stellen Parteien ihre Parlamentsbewerber auf? Das Personalmanagement vor der Bundestagswahl 2017, by Benjamin Höhne in: Carsten Koschmieder (eds.): Parteien, Parteiensysteme und politische Orientierungen. Aktuelle Beiträge der Parteienforschung, Wiesbaden 2017, pp. 227-253.

Four months before the upcoming Bundestag elections, Benjamin Höhne is investigating the question: "How do parties nominate their parliamentary candidates? Personnel management before the 2017 federal elections". This paper contains the first results of an ongoing IParl research project. The article was published in a commemorative publication in honour of Oskar Niedermayer (FU Berlin).

You can find the table of content here:


DIE FREIEN DEMOKRATEN. Comeback der FDP mit neuer Mannschaft, Mit-Mach-Organisation und Mut-Mach-Liberalismus, by Benjamin Höhne and Daniel Hellmann

Benjamin Höhne and Daniel Hellmann analyze in a study the "new" FDP before the German Parliamentary Elections 2017. It is to expect that the liberals will be part of the German Bundestag again.

The study can be downloaded on the following website: